The European Commission`s consultation paper recognises that competition policy is not the best weapon in the fight against climate change and that taxation and regulation are identified as more appropriate instruments. Nevertheless, it shows how rules on anti-competitive agreements and practices already protect the environment and contribute to the objectives of the EU Green Deal. For example, by punishing restrictive behaviour that harms the environment, such as for example. B when developing or introducing clean technologies. EU competition rules applicable to horizontal agreements A guide for the evaluation of horizontal agreements (including the European Commission`s guidelines on horizontal cooperation and block exemption regulations for R&D and specialisation agreements) January 2018 / EU competition rules applicable to horizontal agreements Content 1. Introduction 1 2. Exchange of information 8 3. R &D agreements 10 4. Production agreements 20 5. Sales contracts 24 6. Marketing agreements 25 7. Standardisation agreements and standard conditions 26 / EU competition rules on horizontal agreements 11.
Introduction 1.1 Enterprises continuously take steps to remain competitive and bring their goods and services to market – to produce them, sell them and market their products; the purchase of raw materials and operating equipment; and research and development of new products. Some companies perform all these functions themselves. They can also work with other companies in some of these areas. Horizontal cooperation agreements (i.e.: Agreements between companies operating on the market at the same level of production or distribution can be economically attractive to the parties, as they can share risks and reduce costs to bring their products to market. Trade agreements of this type can also bring benefits to consumers in the form of more technically demanding products and wider choice. They can also contribute to the opening up of national markets and the dissemination of know-how throughout Europe. 1.2 This publication explains how EU competition rules apply to different forms of horizontal cooperation.1 In particular, how Article 101 TFEU generally applies to horizontal cooperation between companies; it does not deal with specific sectoral rules for horizontal cooperation in certain sectors of activity, for example.B. Agriculture and transport.