We use imports of four categories of products encoding 6 digits according to the Harmonized System (HS): “Wine, sparkling wine” (220410), “silent wine, in containers of a lower or equal 220421” (220421), “silent wine, in containers of more than 2 l” (220429), “grape must” (220430). We include all types of bilaterals applied to wine imports: sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, technical barriers to trade (TBT) and pre-shipment inspections. We collected annual bilateral data from the Global Database on Non-Tariff Measures for NTMs and the UN Comtrade Database for Imports. The dataset covers 24 countries (selected from the top wine importers, exporters and producers) and covers data from 1991 to 2016. The agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on the mutual recognition of certain distilled spirit drinks and spirits will continue to recognise the names scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, Tennessee whisky, bourbon whisky and bourbon in bilateral trade after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the EU. In 2017, the United Kingdom was the largest export market for DISTILLED SPIRITS IN THE UNITED STATES, with a total export of $187 million. In 2017, Britain was the largest export market for distilled spirits to the United States, with a total export of $187 million, and the largest retail market for U.S. whisky exports, including nearly $150 million. US whisky exports to the 28 EU Member States amounted to $667 million. Britain was also the fourth-largest export market for U.S. wine products in 2017, worth $227 million.
We show the difference between the trade effects of on net importers and net exporters (Table 7). TBTs and pre-shipment inspections are only carried out by net importers. TBTs are commercial promotion factors for bottled wine, but hinder the bulk wine trade. The OEE`s trade-impeding effect on the mass wine of net importers could be due to the high specialisation of some net exporters of mass wine (i.e. Australia, New Zealand and Spain) . Pre-shipment inspections increase imports of bottled wine. SPS is accepted only by net exporters and increases wine imports. 98% of products that can be exported to Canada will continue to benefit from duty-free trade, including British wines and spirits.
Our results show that business strategies are quite heterogeneous in transnational countries. Net importers are frequent users of technical regulations (OEEs) and tend to impose pre-shipment formalities from exporting countries. Net exporters prefer measures to ensure food security and prevent the spread of diseases or pests (SPS). Beyond the specific differences, we can conclude that bilateral trade agreements are pro-trade for both net importers and net exporters. Changes in trade rules have greatly influenced agricultural and food markets  and are also changing the global wine trade. The scale of policy interventions (tariffs and non-tariff measures, NTM) is remarkable in the wine sector . The evolution of the level of policy interventions seems to follow the pattern of world trade, with significant changes in the relative importance of groups of countries . In addition to substantial regulation introduced by multilateral trade agreements, there is a strong trend towards the definition of bilateral trade agreements: their impact on trade is not always clear or quantified at the global level. We assessed the impact of bilateral on global wine imports using a gravity approach. We quantify the impact on sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards, technical barriers to trade (TBT) and pre-shipment inspections and conclude that there are differences observed for the segments of the wine market (sparkling wines, bottles, bulk, musts). .